Link Search Menu Expand Document


Table of contents

Getting started

I highly recommend Overleaf, especially for beginners. I recommend following a tutorial to get set up.

My Preamble

This is my preamble that I use for every new document. It covers pretty much everything I need to do in LaTeX.

\usepackage[text={11in,8.5in}]{geometry} %set margin size
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} %set encoding

\usepackage{pdflscape} %lets you make a landscape page in a document

\usepackage{setspace} %line spacing

% set up fancy headers
\lhead{} % text on top left
\rhead{} % text on top right
\cfoot{p. \thepage } % page number bottom center
\renewcommand{ \headrulewidth }{0pt}

\usepackage{natbib} %referencing
\usepackage{cite} %enable in-text citation
\setcitestyle{authoryear,open={(},close={)}} % in-text citation style

\usepackage{url} % lets you make urls hyperlinks
\usepackage{hyperref} %lets you hyperlink sections and figures

% Tables and Figures
\usepackage{tabularx} % tables package
%\usepackage{multirows} % multi row/multi column in tables
\usepackage{longtable} % multi-page tables
\usepackage[export]{adjustbox} %for features for images
\usepackage[demo]{graphicx} % figures

\usepackage{amsmath} %symbols
\usepackage{accents} %symbols
\usepackage{tipa} %IPA symbols

\usepackage{xcolor} %textcolor

\usepackage{CJKutf8} %Chinese characters
\usepackage{linguex} %linguistics examples

\usepackage{tikz-qtree}  %trees


\author{Author Name}

\begin{CJK*}{UTF8}{gbsn} %Chinese characters


General LaTeX


There are many ways to make tables in LaTeX, but I generally use table, which automatically makes a tabular inside. Like figure, table lets you control where the table appears in the document (in this case [h!] forces the table to appear in place, rather than later in the document); center the table (\centering); create captions, and label it for referencing with the \ref{} command.

        \textbf{Input}&\textbf{Meaning type}&\textbf{Reduplication pattern} & \textbf{Domain} \\ \hline
        root& diminishing semantics & ABAB pattern & syntax\\
        stem & increasing semantics & AABB pattern & morphology
    \caption{Relationship described by \citet{melloni_reduplication_2018}}

Any section, subsection, numbered example, figure, table, or image can be labeled and referenced within a document. In the example below, I added a \label in the same line as the section header and later referenced the section number using the \ref command. Then, if you add or remove a section, it will update the numbers automatically. This is one of the best features of LaTeX, in my opinion.


\section{Introduction} \label{introduction}


In \S\\ref{introduction}, I argued...

Getting referencing set up

In order to use referencing, you need to use a package like natbib, which is the most popular referencing package. Then, to enable in-text citations, you need the cite package.


You need to have a .bib file that contains all your references. The references entries look like this:

  title={Reduplication: Doubling in morphology},
  author={Inkelas, Sharon and Zoll, Cheryl},
  publisher={Cambridge University Press}

In the main .tex file, where you write your document, wherever you want to have your references section, you put this chunk of code:

\bibliographystyle{apalike} %the style of citations you want to use

\bibliography{references} %the name of your .bib file is inside the curly brackets

To reference a source, you can use one of the commands like \citet{} (which gives you an in-text citation, e.g. Inkelas (2005)), \citep{} (which gives you a citation inside of parentheses, e.g. (Inkelas, 2005)), or \citet[p.42]{} (which gives you a citation with a page number, e.g. Inkelas (2005; p. 42)).

\citet[p. 42]{inkelas2005reduplication}

LaTeX for Linguists


To use IPA symbols, I used the tipa package [documentation][cheat sheet]. I made a shortcut, where I could introduce a tipa symbol with the command \ipa{}.


Some examples:

  • /ø/ - \ipa{\o}
  • /ʁ/ - \ipa{K}
  • /ʃʲ/ - \ipa{S}\super{j}

Generative Phonological Rules

I haven’t had to write up any phonological rules, but this package looks pretty solid: phonrule [documentation].


\phonb{\phonfeat{+stop \\ +consonant \\ +alveolar}
}{[ɾ]}{\phonfeat{+vowel \\ +stressed}}{\phonfeat{+vowel \\ +stressed}}

Optimality Theory

To make OT Tableau, you can use the ot-tableau package [documentation]. A \tableau can be embedded in a figure to allow you to center the tableau, give it a figure number and caption, etc.


\inp{\ips{at + pra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i}} \const{\textsc{agree}(voi)} \const{\textsc{agree}(front)} \const{no-gem} \const{dep-v}
\cand[\Optimal]{atpra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i} \vio{} \vio{} \vio{} \vio{} 
\cand{adpra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i} \vio{*} \vio{} \vio{} \vio{} 
\cand{at\super{j}pra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i} \vio{} \vio{*} \vio{} \vio{} 
\cand{ad\super{j}pra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i} \vio{} \vio{*} \vio{} \vio{} 
\cand{at\super{j}ipra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i} \vio{} \vio{} \vio{} \vio{*} 
\caption{atpra\ipa{S}\super{j}\ipa{i:}t\super{j}i `to ask' }


To make syntax trees, I like the tikz-qtree package (which is different than the qtree package) [documentation]. This package gives you a lot of great options with drawing arrows from one leaf to another. Again, I like to embed the tree within a figure so I can control where it appears in the document, caption, etc.


    \small{\Tree [.CP [.DP \node(buchmove){Die Bücher}; ] [.CP [.C\super{0} [.T\super{0}  [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} [.\textit{v}\super{0} ] [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} \node(hatmove3){hat}; ] ]  
                                  [.T\super{0} \node(t3){\textsc{3sg}}; ] ] 
                        [.C\super{0} \node(c){$\emptyset$}; ] ]  
                        [.TP [.DP \node(johnmove){John}; ] 
                             [.TP [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$P [.\textit{v}P [.\textit{v}P [.VP [.DP \node(buch){Die Bücher}; ]                                                              [.V\super{0} gekauft ] ] 
                                                              [.\textit{v}\super{0} \node(v2){}; ] ] 
                                                [.DP\sub{[3\textsc{sg}]} \node(john){$<$John$>$}; ] ]
                                  [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} [.\textit{v}\super{0} \node(vmove1){}; ] [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} \node(hatmove){$<$hat$>$}; ] ] ] 
                                  [.T\super{0}  [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} [.\textit{v}\super{0} ] [.\textit{v}$_{aux}$\super{0} \node(hatmove2){$<$hat$>$}; ] ]  
                                  [.T\super{0}\sub{[u$\phi$]} \node(t){\textsc{$<$3sg$>$}}; ] ] ] ] ] ] }
    \draw[black,semithick,->] (john)..controls +(south:10) and +(south:10)..(johnmove);
    \draw[black,semithick,->] (buch)..controls +(south:6) and +(south:6)..(buchmove);
    \draw[teal, semithick,dashed,->] (t)..controls  +(south:8) and +(south:8) ..(t3)  node[midway,left];
    \draw[teal, semithick,dashed,->] (v2)..controls  +(south:1) and +(south:1) ..(vmove1)  node[midway,left];
    \draw[teal, semithick,dashed,->] (hatmove)..controls  +(south:1) and +(south:1) ..(hatmove2)  node[midway,left];
    \caption{John bought the books.}


To do formal semantics, you primarily need math symbols and logical operators. I mainly use amsmath, stmaryrd, and latexsym. I made up my own command for the double brackets used for denotational semantics, ⟦ ⟧. The command works by writing whatever you want to appear inside the double brackets inside \sem{}. I also made a command to make subscripts which I called \sub{}.


%double brackets 
\newcommand{\sem}[2][v]{\mbox{ $[\![ #2 ]\!]^{#1}$}}


Logical notation looks like this:

$\forall$x$_1$$\forall$x$_2$[G(x$_2$, x$_1$, x$_1$) $\leftrightarrow$ x$_2$ = j] 

Some Useful Symbols



 \sem{$S_3$} $=$  \begin{bmatrix} %square brackets matrix
                  \end{bmatrix}               \begin{pmatrix}  % parethenses matric
                                              <\sem{$S_1$}, \sem{$S_2$} >  

\begin{bmatrix} $Pavarotti$&$\rightarrow$&\begin{bmatrix} $Pavarotti$&$\rightarrow$&1\\ $Bond$&$\rightarrow$&0\\ $Loren$&$\rightarrow$&0 \end{bmatrix}\\
$Bond$&$\rightarrow$&\begin{bmatrix} $Pavarotti$&$\rightarrow$&0\\ $Bond$&$\rightarrow$&1\\ $Loren$&$\rightarrow$&0 \end{bmatrix}\\
$Loren$&$\rightarrow$&\begin{bmatrix} $Pavarotti$&$\rightarrow$&0\\ $Bond$&$\rightarrow$&1\\ $Loren$&$\rightarrow$&1 \end{bmatrix} \end{bmatrix}
\caption{p. 93 Exercise 6, part A}

Overleaf Templates